examples/LotkaVolterra

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Predator-Prey equations describing population dynamics of two biological species

$$\begin{array}{rcl} \frac{ d x }{ dt } & = & \left(\alpha \cdot x - \beta \cdot x \cdot y\right) \\ \frac{ d y }{ dt } & = & \left(\delta \cdot x \cdot y - \gamma \cdot y\right) \\ \end{array}$$
Variable Type Description Value (default) Datatype
\(\alpha\) parameter \(\) Real
\(\beta\) parameter \(\) Real
\(\delta\) parameter \(\) Real
\(\gamma\) parameter \(\) Real
\(x\) free population of prey \(\) Real
\(y\) free population of predator \(\) Real

The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the predator–prey equations, are a pair of first-order, non-linear, differential equations frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two species interact, one as a predator and the other as prey.

The Lotka–Volterra system of equations is an example of a Kolmogorov model, which is a more general framework that can model the dynamics of ecological systems with predator-prey interactions, competition, disease, and mutualism.

Solutions to the equations

The equations have periodic solutions and do not have a simple expression in terms of the usual trigonometric functions, although they are quite tractable.

If none of the non-negative parameters α,β,γ,δ vanishes, three can be absorbed into the normalization of variables to leave but merely one behind: Since the first equation is homogeneous in x, and the second one in y, the parameters β/α and δ/γ, are absorbable in the normalizations of y and x, respectively, and γ into the normalization of t, so that only α/γ remains arbitrary. It is the only parameter affecting the nature of the solutions.

A linearization of the equations yields a solution similar to simple harmonic motion with the population of predators trailing that of prey by 90° in the cycle.

References

Body text taken from Wikipedia.


Modelica Code

model LotkaVolterra
  "Predator-Prey equations describing population dynamics of two biological species"
  parameter Real alpha;
  parameter Real beta;
  parameter Real delta;
  parameter Real gamma;
  Real x "population of prey";
  Real y "population of predator";
equation
  der(x) = ((alpha * x) - ((beta * x) * y));
  der(y) = (((delta * x) * y) - (gamma * y));
end LotkaVolterra;



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